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Akzhol Maken

KHOJA AHMET YASSAW

KHOJA AHMET YASSAWI (1093-1166) was the founder of the poetry of Sufism, who became a spiritual mentor for all Muslims of the East, a religious figure, nicknamed «The Most Holy Sultan». He enjoyed such honor and respect that during his lifetime the expression "In Medina — Mohammed, in Turkestan — Khoja Akhmet" appeared.

KHOJA AHMET yassawi (1093-1166) was the founder of the poetry of Sufism, who became a spiritual mentor for all Muslims of the East, a religious figure, nicknamed «The Most Holy Sultan». He enjoyed such honor and respect that during his lifetime the expression "In Medina — Mohammed, in Turkestan — Khoja Akhmet" appeared.

His father, Ibrahim Mahmud, was an educated man of Sairam.

Akhmet was born in the city of Yassy (Turkestan), his mother died early, and his father died when he was 7 years old. The first teacher and educator of the child was Arystanbab, who was his relative. After the death of Arystanbab, 17-year-old Akhmet arrived in the city of Yassy. From that age he began to write poetry in Arabic, Shagatai, Persian, Turkic, and began to study Oriental poetry and literature. Then he studied at the madrasah of Imam Yusuf Hamadani in Bukhara. After graduating from the madrasah, having known all the hardships and hardships on the way of explaining Sufism, having visited many cities, he returned to his native Turkestan and continued the traditions of Arystanbab.

Over time, he becomes known to the entire Islamic world as a sage. From the age of 63, he imprisoned himself in a dungeon and spent the rest of his life there, explaining it this way: «I have reached the age of the prophet, I don’t need any longer. It is not worth living beyond the age of the prophet.» There are different information about how many years Ahmet Yassawi actually lived. According to some data — 73 years, according to others — 85 years. Based on the 149th verse of the poet, J.Aimauytov believes that Yassawi lived 125 years (but then it turns out that he was born in 1041).

The precious heritage of our ancestor, which has not faded for centuries, «Divani Hikmet» («Book of Wisdom»), is written in the Kipchak dialect of the ancient Turkic language. The original has not been preserved. Only a copy (XV-XVI centuries) has reached us. There are a lot of such samples, many of them have been preserved in Istanbul, Kokand, Tashkent, Moscow, Almaty. Turkic-speaking people can easily read «Hikmet» by Ahmet Yassawi. This work is a spiritual achievement of the Turkic peoples. Ahmet Yassawi is the first talented Turkic poet who wrote in the Ogyz-Kipchak dialect.

Sufism as a current appeared in Islam in the VII-VIII centuries. «Divani Hikmet» reveals the basic rules and principles of Islam. Thus, Sharia is a set of Islamic laws, customs and traditions. Tarikhat is a Sufi teaching. Hakihat is an approach to God. Magripat — knowledge of religion. According to Akhmet, without sharia, tarikhat and maghripat, it is impossible to reach hakihat, it is impossible to approach God.

A.Yassawi calls for piety, patience, humility, he convinces everyone of the truth of the words (hadith) of the prophet: «The basis of faith is conscience.» In the afterlife, it is a «Golden Bridge» leading souls to paradise. Thus he urged people to become honest, kind, merciful.

The preachers of Sufism and the disciples of A.Yassawi spread his views around the world. Khoja Akhmet determined the direction of the spiritual development of the Turkic peoples in the new Islamic civilization. Combining a new religious ideology with shamanism, with Zoroastrianism, he did a lot to introduce this new religion into the public consciousness. Thanks to A.Yassawi Sufism as a philosophical system played a decisive role in the spiritual understanding of the Turkic peoples.

The Turkic people began to worship only Allah. Through faith, the Turks learned both Eastern and world religious philosophies.

By order of the Lord Temir, an architectural monument in honor of His Holiness the Sultan was erected in Turkestan in the XIV century. There is a legend among the people: "When the mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yasawi began to be built, the walls were blown away by a strong wind. After that, the spirit of Elder Kyzyr appeared to Temir in a dream, announcing that first it was necessary to put a mausoleum to Akhmet’s mentor — Arystanbab. Temir unquestioningly fulfilled the will of the old man and only then began his plan."

All those who come on pilgrimage first spend the night at Arystanbab’s grave and only after that go to bow to Akhmet. Since 1982, this monument has been under state protection, in 2003, by decision of unesco, it was included in the World Cultural Heritage List. The length of the grandiose structure is 65.5 m, the width is 45.5 m, the height of the gate portal is 37.5 m. There are about 30 mosques, a library and halls on the territory of the mausoleum.

International University of information technology

IT1-2012 Student Maken Akzhol

Scientific advisor: Y. Zh. Massanov

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